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2018腾讯最赚钱的游戏

发布时间:2018-10-21

原标题:Default

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因6和7俩个系列的启动流程有区别,所以我把他们分开来写

linux可看作是内核和根文件系统组成我们把内核单独拿出来总结一下

CentOS6系列启动流程

首先总结一下总体的流程,接下来展开来叙述:POST加电自检 --  MBR(0扇区前446个字节为GRUB第1阶段) -- (在1扇区后存放GRUB第1.5阶段)GRUB(第2阶段)--  加载内核(vmlinuz,initramfs)--  启动第一个进程(init ;/etc/ini/*.conf init 程序的配置文件)-- 读取/etc/inittab文件来决定进入的系统级别 --  执行/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit脚本来初始化系统 -- 使用/etc/rc.d/rc脚本来根据当前所在的系统级别来读取对应/etc/rc#.d/下的脚本 -- K开头的脚本不启动,S开头的脚本启动,启动顺序按后边跟的数子大小来决定  --  最后执行的脚本/etc/rc.d/rc.local  --  启动/bin/login进程来启动登录程序 ---  OK!

  1. 加载BIOS的硬件信息,获取第一个启动设备
  2. 读取第一个启动设备MBR的引导加载程序(grub)的启动信息
  3. 加载核心操作系统的核心信息,核心开始解压缩,并尝试驱动所有的硬件设备
  4. 核心执行init程序,并获取默认的运行信息
  5. init程序执行/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit文件
  6. 启动核心的外挂模块
  7. init执行运行的各个批处理文件(scripts)
  8. init执行/etc/rc.d/rc.local
  9. 执行/bin/login程序,等待用户登录
  10. 登录之后开始以Shell控制主机

1、POST

Power-On-Self-Test:加电自检,是BIOS功能的一个主要部分。负责完成对CPU、主板、内存、硬盘子系统、显示子系统等硬件情况的检测。

BIOS:Basic Input and Output System,保存着有关计算机系统最重要的基本输入输出程序,系统信息设置、开机加电自检程序和系统启动自举程序等。

CMOS:保存主板的设置时间等参数,依靠主板上的CMOS纽扣电池。

2、BootLoader

引导加载器,Windows使用的bootLoader是ntloader,只可以引导Windows系统;Linux使用的bootloader早期有LILO(LInux LOader),现在6系列用的GRUB0.97版,7系列使用的是GRUB2。

3、GRUB

grub总共分为三个阶段:

  1. 第1阶段:存放在mbr前446个字节
  2. 第1.5阶段:1.5阶段存放在1-27扇区;由于grub1阶段需要去读取grub2阶段的程序和配置文件,但是grub2阶段的程序存放在磁盘的/boot分区中,想要读取分区中的文件就必须要有驱动文件系统的驱动模块,1.5阶段就是来做这件事的。
  3. 第2阶段:存放在磁盘可的/boot分区上(/boot/grub/),启动时选择内核版本界面,还有配置文件都是由第2阶段负责。

功用:

  1. 提供启动菜单、并提供交互式接口 
  2. 加载用户选择的内核或操作系统 
  3. 为菜单提供了保护机制 

grub的配置文件(/boot/grub/grub.cfg)

default=0  #默认title
timeout=5 #grub菜单选择超时时间
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz #grub菜单背景图片
hiddenmenu #隐藏grub选择菜单
password --md5 | ----encrypted  口令 #加密方式和口令,为grub加密防止进如单用户模式修改密码,口令使用下面的命令生成
# grub-md5-crypt  生成MD5的密码
# grub-crypt 生成sha12的密码
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (2.6.32-642.el6.x86_64)
        root (hd0,0) #指定的是/boot所在磁盘的分区"hd0,0"表示第一块磁盘的第一个分区
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-642.el6.x86_64 ro root=UUID=e1d36be7-5027-4847-9d80-135ac9fb798e rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto  KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet #向内核传递的cmdline参数
        initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-642.el6.x86_64.img  #指定initramfs文件的所在路径,注意:(这里的"/"相对的是/boot分区)

如果grub损坏我们可以用下面命令修复

grub-install --root-directory=DIR /dev/DISK 
    --root-directory=DIR:根目录

如果grub配置丢失了怎么办:

在开机的时候会进入grub的命令行接口,但是无法找到内核和ramdisk,所以我们手动指定参数和路径就可以启动系统了。

help: 获取帮助列表 
help KEYWORD: 详细帮助信息 
find (hd#,#)/PATH/TO/SOMEFILE: 
root (hd#,#) 
kernel /PATH/TO/KERNEL_FILE: 设定本次启动时用到的内核文件;额外还可添加许多内核支持使用的cmdline参数
initrd /PATH/TO/INITRAMFS_FILE: 设定为选定的内核提供额外文件的ramdisk 
boot: 引导启动选定的内核

分别指定root(指的是/boot分区),kernel指定内核,initrd指定ramdisk文件,然后boot就可以启动系统了,进入系统后重新编辑/boot/grub.cfg文件来修复问题

4、kernel自身初始化

  1. 探测可识别到的所有硬件设备
  2. 加载硬件驱动程序(借助于ramdisk加载驱动)
  3. 以只读方式挂载根文件系统
  4. 运行用户空间的第一个应用程序:/sbin/init

5、ramdisk

在grub第2阶段的时候只能识别到/boot分区,这个时候内核开始初始化,探测完硬件后开始需要去找根,但是这时还没有驱动程序,所以这个时候需要借助ramdisk来驱动硬件。在CentOS5系列中文件名为/boot/inird,6和7已经改成initramfs。

initramfs中也提供了一个根文件系统,其中包括了硬件必须的驱动,到了这步内核借助这个虚根文件系统来挂载真正的根文件系统。

initramfs文件是在安装系统时按当前的环境来生成的。

如果这个文件损坏了我们也可以使用工具来修复:

# mkinitrd /boot/initramfs-`uname -r`.img `uname -r` 为当前正在使用的内核重新制作ramdisk文件

6、init初始化

init程序启动系统的第一个进程init,它负责创建系统启动后的所有服务进程

init程序的类型:

  • CentOS5.x:SysV
  • CentOS6.x:Upstart
  • CentOS7.x:Systemd

初始化的相关文件:

  • /etc/inittab:定义系统默认的启动级别
id:3:initdefault:
  • /etc/init/control-alt-delete.conf:设定按Ctrl + Alt + Del 是否会重启
start on control-alt-delete
exec /sbin/shutdown -r now "Control-Alt-Delete pressed"
  • /etc/init/tty.conf
  • /etc/init/start-ttys.conf
  • /etc/init/rc.conf
  • /etc/init/prefdm.conf

7、系统级别(CentOS6.x)

  • 0:关机
  • 1:单用户模式(root自动登录), single, 维护模式
  • 2: 多用户模式,启动网络功能,但不会启动NFS;维护模式
  • 3:多用户模式,正常模式;文本界面
  • 4:预留级别;可同3级别
  • 5:多用户模式,正常模式;图形界面
  • 6:重启

init #:切换至#级别

runlevel:查看当前的运行级别和上一运行级别

示例:进入单用户模式

1)在启动过程中看到Booting 。。。的倒计时字样按下esc键

2)按a键修改启动参数,在quiet后加1(单用户模式)

3)按回车键启动,进入单用户模式,可以直接修改root的密码,或者可以修改一些其他服务配置文件错误导致的系统无法进入正常模式的操作。

8、系统初始化脚本(/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit)

  1. 设置主机名
  2. 设置欢迎信息
  3. 激活udev和selinux
  4. 挂载/etc/fstab文件中定义的文件系统
  5. 检测根文件系统,并以读写方式重新挂载根文件系统
  6. 设置系统时钟
  7. 激活swap设备
  8. 根据/etc/sysctl.conf文件设置内核参数
  9. 激活lvm及software raid设备
  10. 加载额外设备的驱动程序
  11. 清理操作

9、启动服务脚本(/etc/rc.d/rc)

由/etc/rc.d/rc脚本控制服务脚本启动还是非启动

for i in /etc/rc$runlevel.d/S* ; do

    # Check if the subsystem is already up.
    subsys=${i#/etc/rc$runlevel.d/S??}
    [ -f /var/lock/subsys/$subsys ] && continue
    [ -f /var/lock/subsys/$subsys.init ] && continue
    check_runlevel "$i" || continue

    # If we"re in confirmation mode, get user confirmation
    if [ "$do_confirm" = "yes" ]; then
        confirm $subsys
        rc=$?
        if [ "$rc" = "1" ]; then
            continue
        elif [ "$rc" = "2" ]; then
            do_confirm="no"
        fi
    fi

    update_boot_stage "$subsys"
    # Bring the subsystem up.
    [ -n "$UPSTART" ] && initctl emit --quiet starting JOB=$subsys
    if [ "$subsys" = "halt" -o "$subsys" = "reboot" ]; then
        export LC_ALL=C
        exec $i start
    fi
    $i start
    [ -n "$UPSTART" ] && initctl emit --quiet started JOB=$subsys
done

rc脚本读取/etc/rc.d/rc#.d/下的所有脚本,以K开头的服务脚本不启动,以S开头的服务脚本启动。

  • K*: K##*:##运行次序;数字越小,越先运行;数字越小的服务,通常为依赖到别的服务
  • S*: S##*:##运行次序;数字越小,越先运行;数字越小的服务,通常为被依赖到的服务

/etc/rc.d/rc#.d/下的所有脚本都是/etc/rc.d/init.d/下的脚本的符号连接,链接名由chkconfig管理。

/etc/rc.d/rc.local:在所有启动脚本执行完成后执行此脚本,可以把不便或不需写为服务脚本放置于/etc/rc.d/init.d/目录,且又想开机时自动运行的命令,可直接放置于/etc/rc.d/rc.local文件中。

所有服务启动完成后启动登录程序(/bin/login)。

CentOS 6 init程序为: upstart, 其配置文件:/etc/inittab, /etc/init/*.conf,配置文件的语法 遵循 upstart配置文件语法格式,和CentOS5不同。

服务管理工具(CentOS6.x)

chkconfig

  • --list 查看
  • --level ##:指定级别,默认为2 3 4 5
  • --add 将脚本加入对应的级别(需要将脚本放到/etc/rc.d/init.d/目录下,并且在脚本开头加上chkconfig:   启动级别   关闭优先级   开启优先级),一般“关闭优先级 + 开启优先级 = 100”
  • --del 删除对应级别脚本

service  服务名  { start | stop | restart }

  • --status-all 查看所有服务的状态

ntsysv:字符界面工具,用来设置开启自启的服务

CentOS7系列启动流程

 

 

 

 

 

内核(kernel)

kernel职责:

  进程管理、内存管理、网络管理、驱动程序、文件系统、安全功能 

内核的设计流派分为单内核和微内核:linux内核为单内核流派,把所有的功能都集成于同一个程序;Windows,Solaris系统的内核是微内核设计,每种功能都使用一个单独的子系统来实现,在一个中心框架下协同工作,从理论上来说微内核的设计更为先进。

linux内核的特点:

  1. 模块化:如把文件系统、硬件启动等编译成模块,使用时装载,
  2. 支持内核模块的动态装载和卸载,更灵活

linux的内核组成:

  • /boot/vmlinz-VERSION-release:核心文件
  • ramdisk
    • /boot/initrd-VERSION-release.img(5.x)
    • /boot/initramfs-VERSION-release.img(6.x和7.x)
  • /lib/modules/VERSION-release  :存放模块文件目录

查看内核当前运行的cmdline参数:

[root@rhel6 ~]# cat /proc/cmdline 
ro root=UUID=e1d36be7-5027-4847-9d80-135ac9fb798e rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16   KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet

内核参数文档:/usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-2.6.32/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt,需要安装以下包。

                          Kernel Parameters
                          ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented
(mostly) by the __setup() macro and sorted into English Dictionary order
(defined as ignoring all punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a
case insensitive manner), and with descriptions where known.

Module parameters for loadable modules are specified only as the
parameter name with optional "=" and value as appropriate, such as:

	modprobe usbcore blinkenlights=1

Module parameters for modules that are built into the kernel image
are specified on the kernel command line with the module name plus
"." plus parameter name, with "=" and value if appropriate, such as:

	usbcore.blinkenlights=1

Hyphens (dashes) and underscores are equivalent in parameter names, so
	log_buf_len=1M print-fatal-signals=1
can also be entered as
	log-buf-len=1M print_fatal_signals=1


This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive. The command
"modinfo -p ${modulename}" shows a current list of all parameters of a loadable
module. Loadable modules, after being loaded into the running kernel, also
reveal their parameters in /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/. Some of these
parameters may be changed at runtime by the command
"echo -n ${value} > /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/${parm}".

The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were
enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at
the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a
parameter is applicable:

	ACPI	ACPI support is enabled.
	AGP	AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) is enabled.
	ALSA	ALSA sound support is enabled.
	APIC	APIC support is enabled.
	APM	Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
	AVR32	AVR32 architecture is enabled.
	AX25	Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
	BLACKFIN Blackfin architecture is enabled.
	EDD	BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD) is enabled
	EFI	EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
	EIDE	EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
	DRM	Direct Rendering Management support is enabled.
	DYNAMIC_DEBUG Build in debug messages and enable them at runtime
	FB	The frame buffer device is enabled.
	GCOV	GCOV profiling is enabled.
	HW	Appropriate hardware is enabled.
	IA-64	IA-64 architecture is enabled.
	IMA     Integrity measurement architecture is enabled.
	IOSCHED	More than one I/O scheduler is enabled.
	IP_PNP	IP DHCP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
	ISAPNP	ISA PnP code is enabled.
	ISDN	Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
	JOY	Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
	KVM	Kernel Virtual Machine support is enabled.
	LIBATA  Libata driver is enabled
	LP	Printer support is enabled.
	LOOP	Loopback device support is enabled.
	M68k	M68k architecture is enabled.
			These options have more detailed description inside of
			Documentation/m68k/kernel-options.txt.
	MCA	MCA bus support is enabled.
	MDA	MDA console support is enabled.
	MOUSE	Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
	MSI	Message Signaled Interrupts (PCI).
	MTD	MTD (Memory Technology Device) support is enabled.
	NET	Appropriate network support is enabled.
	NUMA	NUMA support is enabled.
	NFS	Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
	OSS	OSS sound support is enabled.
	PV_OPS	A paravirtualized kernel is enabled.
	PARIDE	The ParIDE (parallel port IDE) subsystem is enabled.
	PARISC	The PA-RISC architecture is enabled.
	PCI	PCI bus support is enabled.
	PCIE	PCI Express support is enabled.
	PCMCIA	The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
	PNP	Plug & Play support is enabled.
	PPC	PowerPC architecture is enabled.
	PPT	Parallel port support is enabled.
	PS2	Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
	RAM	RAM disk support is enabled.
	ROOTPLUG The example Root Plug LSM is enabled.
	S390	S390 architecture is enabled.
	SCSI	Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
			A lot of drivers has their options described inside of
			Documentation/scsi/.
	SECURITY Different security models are enabled.
	SELINUX SELinux support is enabled.
	SERIAL	Serial support is enabled.
	SH	SuperH architecture is enabled.
	SMP	The kernel is an SMP kernel.
	SPARC	Sparc architecture is enabled.
	SWSUSP	Software suspend (hibernation) is enabled.
	SUSPEND	System suspend states are enabled.
	FTRACE	Function tracing enabled.
	TPM	TPM drivers are enabled.
	TS	Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
	UMS	USB Mass Storage support is enabled.
	USB	USB support is enabled.
	USBHID	USB Human Interface Device support is enabled.
	V4L	Video For Linux support is enabled.
	VGA	The VGA console has been enabled.
	VT	Virtual terminal support is enabled.
	WDT	Watchdog support is enabled.
	XT	IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
	X86-32	X86-32, aka i386 architecture is enabled.
	X86-64	X86-64 architecture is enabled.
			More X86-64 boot options can be found in
			Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt .
	X86	Either 32bit or 64bit x86 (same as X86-32+X86-64)
	XEN	Xen support is enabled

In addition, the following text indicates that the option:

	BUGS=	Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
	KNL	Is a kernel start-up parameter.
	BOOT	Is a boot loader parameter.

Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot
loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly.
Do not modify the syntax of boot loader parameters without extreme
need or coordination with <Documentation/x86/boot.txt>.

There are also arch-specific kernel-parameters not documented here.
See for example <Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt>.

Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that
a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will
be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that
it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs
running once the system is up.

The number of kernel parameters is not limited, but the length of the
complete command line (parameters including spaces etc.) is limited to
a fixed number of characters. This limit depends on the architecture
and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
./include/asm/setup.h as COMMAND_LINE_SIZE.


	acpi=		[HW,ACPI,X86]
			Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
			Format: { force | off | ht | strict | noirq | rsdt }
			force -- enable ACPI if default was off
			off -- disable ACPI if default was on
			noirq -- do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
			ht -- run only enough ACPI to enable Hyper Threading
			strict -- Be less tolerant of platforms that are not
				strictly ACPI specification compliant.
			rsdt -- prefer RSDT over (default) XSDT

			See also Documentation/power/pm.txt, pci=noacpi

	acpi_rsdp=	[ACPI,EFI,KEXEC]
			Pass the RSDP address to the kernel, mostly used
			on machines running EFI runtime service to boot the
			second kernel for kdump.

	acpi_apic_instance=	[ACPI, IOAPIC]
			Format: <int>
			2: use 2nd APIC table, if available
			1,0: use 1st APIC table
			default: 0

	acpi_backlight=	[HW,ACPI]
			acpi_backlight=vendor
			acpi_backlight=video
			If set to vendor, prefer vendor specific driver
			(e.g. thinkpad_acpi, sony_acpi, etc.) instead
			of the ACPI video.ko driver.

	acpi.debug_layer=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
	acpi.debug_level=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
			Format: <int>
			CONFIG_ACPI_DEBUG must be enabled to produce any ACPI
			debug output.  Bits in debug_layer correspond to a
			_COMPONENT in an ACPI source file, e.g.,
			    #define _COMPONENT ACPI_PCI_COMPONENT
			Bits in debug_level correspond to a level in
			ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT statements, e.g.,
			    ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT((ACPI_DB_INFO, ...
			The debug_level mask defaults to "info".  See
			Documentation/acpi/debug.txt for more information about
			debug layers and levels.

			Enable processor driver info messages:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x20000000
			Enable PCI/PCI interrupt routing info messages:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x400000
			Enable AML "Debug" output, i.e., stores to the Debug
			object while interpreting AML:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0xffffffff acpi.debug_level=0x2
			Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x2 acpi.debug_level=0xffffffff

			Some values produce so much output that the system is
			unusable.  The "log_buf_len" parameter may be useful
			if you need to capture more output.

	acpi_display_output=	[HW,ACPI]
			acpi_display_output=vendor
			acpi_display_output=video
			See above.

	acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will balance active IRQs
			default in APIC mode

	acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
			default in PIC mode

	acpi_irq_isa=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_irq_pci=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
			use by PCI
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_no_auto_ssdt	[HW,ACPI] Disable automatic loading of SSDT

	acpi_os_name=	[HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
			Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"

	acpi_osi=	[HW,ACPI] Modify list of supported OS interface strings
			acpi_osi="string1"	# add string1 -- only one string
			acpi_osi="!string2"	# remove built-in string2
			acpi_osi=		# disable all strings

	acpi_pm_good	[X86]
			Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
			to assume that this machine"s pmtimer latches its value
			and always returns good values.

	acpi_sci=	[HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
			Format: { level | edge | high | low }

	acpi_serialize	[HW,ACPI] force serialization of AML methods

	acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
			For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.

	acpi_sleep=	[HW,ACPI] Sleep options
			Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode, s3_beep, s4_nohwsig,
				  old_ordering, s4_nonvs }
			See Documentation/power/video.txt for information on
			s3_bios and s3_mode.
			s3_beep is for debugging; it makes the PC"s speaker beep
			as soon as the kernel"s real-mode entry point is called.
			s4_nohwsig prevents ACPI hardware signature from being
			used during resume from hibernation.
			old_ordering causes the ACPI 1.0 ordering of the _PTS
			control method, with respect to putting devices into
			low power states, to be enforced (the ACPI 2.0 ordering
			of _PTS is used by default).
			s4_nonvs prevents the kernel from saving/restoring the
			ACPI NVS memory during hibernation.

	acpi_use_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Use timer override. For some broken Nvidia NF5 boards
			that require a timer override, but don"t have HPET

	acpi_enforce_resources=	[ACPI]
			{ strict | lax | no }
			Check for resource conflicts between native drivers
			and ACPI OperationRegions (SystemIO and SystemMemory
			only). IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be
			used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and
			can interfere with legacy drivers.
			strict (default): access to resources claimed by ACPI
			is denied; legacy drivers trying to access reserved
			resources will fail to bind to device using them.
			lax: access to resources claimed by ACPI is allowed;
			legacy drivers trying to access reserved resources
			will bind successfully but a warning message is logged.
			no: ACPI OperationRegions are not marked as reserved,
			no further checks are performed.

	ad1848=		[HW,OSS]
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<type>

	acpi_no_memhotplug [ACPI] Disable memory hotplug.  Useful for kdump
			   kernels.

	add_efi_memmap	[EFI; X86] Include EFI memory map in
			kernel"s map of available physical RAM.

	advansys=	[HW,SCSI]
			See header of drivers/scsi/advansys.c.

	advwdt=		[HW,WDT] Advantech WDT
			Format: <iostart>,<iostop>

	aedsp16=	[HW,OSS] Audio Excel DSP 16
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<mss_io>,<mpu_io>,<mpu_irq>
			See also header of sound/oss/aedsp16.c.

	agp=		[AGP]
			{ off | try_unsupported }
			off: disable AGP support
			try_unsupported: try to drive unsupported chipsets
				(may crash computer or cause data corruption)

	aha152x=	[HW,SCSI]
			See Documentation/scsi/aha152x.txt.

	aha1542=	[HW,SCSI]
			Format: <portbase>[,<buson>,<busoff>[,<dmaspeed>]]

	aic7xxx=	[HW,SCSI]
			See Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt.

	aic79xx=	[HW,SCSI]
			See Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt.

	align_va_addr=	[X86-64]
			Align virtual addresses by clearing slice [14:12] when
			allocating a VMA at process creation time. This option
			gives you up to 3% performance improvement on AMD F15h
			machines (where it is enabled by default) for a
			CPU-intensive style benchmark, and it can vary highly in
			a microbenchmark depending on workload and compiler.

			32: only for 32-bit processes
			64: only for 64-bit processes
			on: enable for both 32- and 64-bit processes
			off: disable for both 32- and 64-bit processes

	amd_iommu=	[HW,X86-84]
			Pass parameters to the AMD IOMMU driver in the system.
			Format: <a>,<b>,...
			Possible values are:
			on - enable AMD IOMMU (disabled by default)
			isolate - enable device isolation (each device, as far
			          as possible, will get its own protection
			          domain). This parameter also forces the
				  AMD IOMMU driver out of passthrough mode.
			share - put every device behind one IOMMU into the
				same protection domain. This parameter also
				forces the AMD IOMMU driver to not use
				passthrough mode.
			fullflush - enable flushing of IO/TLB entries when
				    they are unmapped. Otherwise they are
				    flushed before they will be reused, which
				    is a lot faster.

	amijoy.map=	[HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
			Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
			Format: <a>,<b>
			See also Documentation/kernel/input/joystick.txt

	analog.map=	[HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
			Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
			connected to one of 16 gameports
			Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>

	apc=		[HW,SPARC]
			Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
			Format: noidle
			Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
			not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
			APC and your system crashes randomly.

	apic=		[APIC,X86-32] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
			Change the output verbosity whilst booting
			Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
			Change the amount of debugging information output
			when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.

	apm=		[APM] Advanced Power Management
			See header of arch/x86/kernel/apm_32.c.

	arcrimi=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>

	ataflop=	[HW,M68k]

	atarimouse=	[HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse

	atascsi=	[HW,SCSI] Atari SCSI

	atkbd.extra=	[HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
			EzKey and similar keyboards

	atkbd.reset=	[HW] Reset keyboard during initialization

	atkbd.set=	[HW] Select keyboard code set
			Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)

	atkbd.scroll=	[HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar
			keyboards

	atkbd.softraw=	[HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
			Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))

	atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
			Use software keyboard repeat

	autotest	[IA64]

	baycom_epp=	[HW,AX25]
			Format: <io>,<mode>

	baycom_par=	[HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem
			Format: <io>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_par.c.

	baycom_ser_fdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Full Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>[,<baud>]
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_fdx.c.

	baycom_ser_hdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Half Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_hdx.c.

	boot_delay=	Milliseconds to delay each printk during boot.
			Values larger than 10 seconds (10000) are changed to
			no delay (0).
			Format: integer

	bootmem_debug	[KNL] Enable bootmem allocator debug messages.

	bttv.card=	[HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards)
	bttv.radio=	Most important insmod options are available as
			kernel args too.
	bttv.pll=	See Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Insmod-options
	bttv.tuner=	and Documentation/video4linux/bttv/CARDLIST

	BusLogic=	[HW,SCSI]
			See drivers/scsi/BusLogic.c, comment before function
			BusLogic_ParseDriverOptions().

	c101=		[NET] Moxa C101 synchronous serial card

	cachesize=	[BUGS=X86-32] Override level 2 CPU cache size detection.
			Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache
			size incorrectly. The kernel will attempt work arounds
			to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not
			possible to determine what the correct size should be.
			This option provides an override for these situations.

	capability.disable=
			[SECURITY] Disable capabilities.  This would normally
			be used only if an alternative security model is to be
			configured.  Potentially dangerous and should only be
			used if you are entirely sure of the consequences.

	ccw_timeout_log [S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.

	cgroup_disable= [KNL] Disable a particular controller
			Format: {name of the controller(s) to disable}
				{Currently supported controllers - "memory"}

	checkreqprot	[SELINUX] Set initial checkreqprot flag value.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- check protection applied by kernel (includes
				any implied execute protection).
			1 -- check protection requested by application.
			Default value is set via a kernel config option.
			Value can be changed at runtime via
				/selinux/checkreqprot.

	cio_ignore=	[S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.

	clock=		[BUGS=X86-32, HW] gettimeofday clocksource override.
			[Deprecated]
			Forces specified clocksource (if available) to be used
			when calculating gettimeofday(). If specified
			clocksource is not available, it defaults to PIT.
			Format: { pit | tsc | cyclone | pmtmr }

	clocksource=	Override the default clocksource
			Format: <string>
			Override the default clocksource and use the clocksource
			with the name specified.
			Some clocksource names to choose from, depending on
			the platform:
			[all] jiffies (this is the base, fallback clocksource)
			[ACPI] acpi_pm
			[ARM] imx_timer1,OSTS,netx_timer,mpu_timer2,
				pxa_timer,timer3,32k_counter,timer0_1
			[AVR32] avr32
			[X86-32] pit,hpet,tsc,vmi-timer;
				scx200_hrt on Geode; cyclone on IBM x440
			[MIPS] MIPS
			[PARISC] cr16
			[S390] tod
			[SH] SuperH
			[SPARC64] tick
			[X86-64] hpet,tsc

	clocksource_failover [GENERIC_TIME] Switch the clocksource if the
			     current clocksource is found to be unstable.

	clearcpuid=BITNUM [X86]
			Disable CPUID feature X for the kernel. See
			arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h for the valid bit
			numbers. Note the Linux specific bits are not necessarily
			stable over kernel options, but the vendor specific
			ones should be.
			Also note that user programs calling CPUID directly
			or using the feature without checking anything
			will still see it. This just prevents it from
			being used by the kernel or shown in /proc/cpuinfo.
			Also note the kernel might malfunction if you disable
			some critical bits.

	cmo_free_hint=	[PPC] Format: { yes | no }
			Specify whether pages are marked as being inactive
			when they are freed.  This is used in CMO environments
			to determine OS memory pressure for page stealing by
			a hypervisor.
			Default: yes

	code_bytes	[X86] How many bytes of object code to print
			in an oops report.
			Range: 0 - 8192
			Default: 64

	com20020=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM20020 chipset
			Format:
			<io>[,<irq>[,<nodeID>[,<backplane>[,<ckp>[,<timeout>]]]]]

	com90io=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (IO-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>]

	com90xx=	[HW,NET]
			ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (memory-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>[,<memstart>]]

	condev=		[HW,S390] console device
	conmode=

	console=	[KNL] Output console device and options.

		tty<n>	Use the virtual console device <n>.

		ttyS<n>[,options]
		ttyUSB0[,options]
			Use the specified serial port.  The options are of
			the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate,
			"p" is parity ("n", "o", or "e"), "n" is number of
			bits, and "f" is flow control ("r" for RTS or
			omit it).  Default is "9600n8".

			See Documentation/serial-console.txt for more
			information.  See
			Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt for an
			alternative.

		uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
		uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address,
			switching to the matching ttyS device later.  The
			options are the same as for ttyS, above.

                If the device connected to the port is not a TTY but a braille
                device, prepend "brl," before the device type, for instance
			console=brl,ttyS0
		For now, only VisioBraille is supported.

	consoleblank=	[KNL] The console blank (screen saver) timeout in
			seconds. Defaults to 10*60 = 10mins. A value of 0
			disables the blank timer.

	coredump_filter=
			[KNL] Change the default value for
			/proc/<pid>/coredump_filter.
			See also Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt.

	cpcihp_generic=	[HW,PCI] Generic port I/O CompactPCI driver
			Format:
			<first_slot>,<last_slot>,<port>,<enum_bit>[,<debug>]

	crashkernel=nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]
			[KNL] Reserve a chunk of physical memory to
			hold a kernel to switch to with kexec on panic.

	crashkernel=range1:size1[,range2:size2,...][@offset]
			[KNL] Same as above, but depends on the memory
			in the running system. The syntax of range is
			start-[end] where start and end are both
			a memory unit (amount[KMG]). See also
			Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for a example.

	cs89x0_dma=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <dma>

	cs89x0_media=	[HW,NET]
			Format: { rj45 | aui | bnc }

	dasd=		[HW,NET]
			See header of drivers/s390/block/dasd_devmap.c.

	db9.dev[2|3]=	[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick support via parallel port
			(one device per port)
			Format: <port#>,<type>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	ddebug_query=   [KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG] Enable debug messages at early boot
			time. See Documentation/dynamic-debug-howto.txt for
			details.  Deprecated, see dyndbg.

	debug		[KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).

	debug_locks_verbose=
			[KNL] verbose self-tests
			Format=<0|1>
			Print debugging info while doing the locking API
			self-tests.
			We default to 0 (no extra messages), setting it to
			1 will print _a lot_ more information - normally
			only useful to kernel developers.

	debug_objects	[KNL] Enable object debugging

	no_debug_objects
			[KNL] Disable object debugging

	debugpat	[X86] Enable PAT debugging

	decnet.addr=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <area>[,<node>]
			See also Documentation/networking/decnet.txt.

	default_hugepagesz=
			[same as hugepagesz=] The size of the default
			HugeTLB page size. This is the size represented by
			the legacy /proc/ hugepages APIs, used for SHM, and
			default size when mounting hugetlbfs filesystems.
			Defaults to the default architecture"s huge page size
			if not specified.

	dhash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for dentry cache.

	digi=		[HW,SERIAL]
			IO parameters + enable/disable command.

	digiepca=	[HW,SERIAL]
			See drivers/char/README.epca and
			Documentation/serial/digiepca.txt.

	disable_cpu_apicid= [X86,APIC,SMP]
			Format: <int>
			The number of initial APIC ID for the
			corresponding CPU to be disabled at boot,
			mostly used for the kdump 2nd kernel to
			disable BSP to wake up multiple CPUs without
			causing system reset or hang due to sending
			INIT from AP to BSP.

	disable_ddw     [PPC]
			Disable Dynamic DMA Window support. Use this if
			to workaround buggy firmware.

	disable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter disables that.

	disable_mtrr_trim [X86, Intel and AMD only]
			By default the kernel will trim any uncacheable
			memory out of your available memory pool based on
			MTRR settings.  This parameter disables that behavior,
			possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.

	disable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Disable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs.

	dmasound=	[HW,OSS] Sound subsystem buffers

	dma_debug=off	If the kernel is compiled with DMA_API_DEBUG support,
			this option disables the debugging code at boot.

	dma_debug_entries=<number>
			This option allows to tune the number of preallocated
			entries for DMA-API debugging code. One entry is
			required per DMA-API allocation. Use this if the
			DMA-API debugging code disables itself because the
			architectural default is too low.

	dma_debug_driver=<driver_name>
			With this option the DMA-API debugging driver
			filter feature can be enabled at boot time. Just
			pass the driver to filter for as the parameter.
			The filter can be disabled or changed to another
			driver later using sysfs.

	dscc4.setup=	[NET]

	dtc3181e=	[HW,SCSI]

	dyndbg[="val"]		[KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG]
	module.dyndbg[="val"]
			Enable debug messages at boot time.  See
			Documentation/dynamic-debug-howto.txt for details.

	earlycon=	[KNL] Output early console device and options.
		uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
		uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address.
			The options are the same as for ttyS, above.

	earlyprintk=	[X86,SH,BLACKFIN]
			earlyprintk=vga
			earlyprintk=efi
			earlyprintk=serial[,ttySn[,baudrate]]
			earlyprintk=ttySn[,baudrate]
			earlyprintk=dbgp[debugController#]

			Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console
			takes over.

			Only one of vga, efi, serial or usb debug port can
			be used at a time.

			Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 are supported.

			Interaction with the standard serial driver is not
			very good.

			The VGA and EFI output is eventually overwritten by
			the real console.

	eata=		[HW,SCSI]

	edac_report=	[HW,EDAC] Control how to report EDAC event
			Format: {"on" | "off" | "force"}
			on: enable EDAC to report H/W event. May be overridden
			by other higher priority error reporting module.
			off: disable H/W event reporting through EDAC.
			force: enforce the use of EDAC to report H/W event.
			default: on.

	edd=		[EDD]
			Format: {"off" | "on" | "skip[mbr]"}

	efi_smbios_addr= [X86,EFI]
			Parameter used to specify location of SMBIOS for
			EFI systems.  Used by kexec-tools for kdump.

	eisa_irq_edge=	[PARISC,HW]
			See header of drivers/parisc/eisa.c.

	elanfreq=	[X86-32]
			See comment before function elanfreq_setup() in
			arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpufreq/elanfreq.c.

	elevator=	[IOSCHED]
			Format: {"anticipatory" | "cfq" | "deadline" | "noop"}
			See Documentation/block/as-iosched.txt and
			Documentation/block/deadline-iosched.txt for details.

	elfcorehdr=[size[KMG]@]offset[KMG] [IA64,PPC,SH,X86,S390]
			Specifies physical address of start of kernel core
			image elf header and optionally the size. Generally
			kexec loader will pass this option to capture kernel.
			See Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for details.

	enable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter enables that.

	enable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Enable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs
			(in particular on some ATI chipsets).
			The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.

	enforcing	[SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
			Format: {"0" | "1"}
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- permissive (log only, no denials).
			1 -- enforcing (deny and log).
			Default value is 0.
			Value can be changed at runtime via /selinux/enforce.

	erst_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Error Record Serialization Table (ERST)
			support.

	ether=		[HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters
			This option is obsoleted by the "netdev=" option, which
			has equivalent usage. See its documentation for details.

	eurwdt=		[HW,WDT] Eurotech CPU-1220/1410 onboard watchdog.
			Format: <io>[,<irq>]

	failslab=
	fail_page_alloc=
	fail_make_request=[KNL]
			General fault injection mechanism.
			Format: <interval>,<probability>,<space>,<times>
			See also /Documentation/fault-injection/.

	fd_mcs=		[HW,SCSI]
			See header of drivers/scsi/fd_mcs.c.

	fdomain=	[HW,SCSI]
			See header of drivers/scsi/fdomain.c.

	floppy=		[HW]
			See Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt.

	force_hrtimer_reprogram= [KNL] Force the reprogramming of expired
			timers in hrtimer_reprogram().

	force_pal_cache_flush
			[IA-64] Avoid check_sal_cache_flush which may hang on
			buggy SAL_CACHE_FLUSH implementations. Using this
			parameter will force ia64_sal_cache_flush to call
			ia64_pal_cache_flush instead of SAL_CACHE_FLUSH.

	ftrace=[tracer]
			[FTRACE] will set and start the specified tracer
			as early as possible in order to facilitate early
			boot debugging.

	ftrace_dump_on_oops
			[FTRACE] will dump the trace buffers on oops.

	ftrace_filter=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Limit the functions traced by the function
			tracer at boot up. function-list is a comma separated
			list of functions. This list can be changed at run
			time by the set_ftrace_filter file in the debugfs
			tracing directory. 

	ftrace_notrace=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Do not trace the functions specified in
			function-list. This list can be changed at run time
			by the set_ftrace_notrace file in the debugfs
			tracing directory.

	gamecon.map[2|3]=
			[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick and NES/SNES/PSX pad
			support via parallel port (up to 5 devices per port)
			Format: <port#>,<pad1>,<pad2>,<pad3>,<pad4>,<pad5>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	gamma=		[HW,DRM]

	gart_fix_e820=  [X86_64] disable the fix e820 for K8 GART
			Format: off | on
			default: on

	gcov_persist=	[GCOV] When non-zero (default), profiling data for
			kernel modules is saved and remains accessible via
			debugfs, even when the module is unloaded/reloaded.
			When zero, profiling data is discarded and associated
			debugfs files are removed at module unload time.

	gdth=		[HW,SCSI]
			See header of drivers/scsi/gdth.c.

	gpt		[EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
			invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT.

	gvp11=		[HW,SCSI]

	hardlockup_all_cpu_backtrace=
			[KNL] Should the hard-lockup detector generate
			backtraces on all cpus.
			Format: <integer>

	hashdist=	[KNL,NUMA] Large hashes allocated during boot
			are distributed across NUMA nodes.  Defaults on
			for 64bit NUMA, off otherwise.
			Format: 0 | 1 (for off | on)

	hcl=		[IA-64] SGI"s Hardware Graph compatibility layer

	hd=		[EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
			Format: <cyl>,<head>,<sect>

	hest_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Hardware Error Source Table (HEST) support;
			corresponding firmware-first mode error processing
			logic will be disabled.

	highmem=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] forces the highmem zone to have an exact
			size of <nn>. This works even on boxes that have no
			highmem otherwise. This also works to reduce highmem
			size on bigger boxes.

	highres=	[KNL] Enable/disable high resolution timer mode.
			Valid parameters: "on", "off"
			Default: "on"

	hisax=		[HW,ISDN]
			See Documentation/isdn/README.HiSax.

	hlt		[BUGS=ARM,SH]

	hpet=		[X86-32,HPET] option to control HPET usage
			Format: { enable (default) | disable | force |
				verbose }
			disable: disable HPET and use PIT instead
			force: allow force enabled of undocumented chips (ICH4,
				VIA, nVidia)
			verbose: show contents of HPET registers during setup

	hpet_mmap	[HW, X86_64] Enable userspace mapping of HPET
			registers for faster HPET access by userspace
			processes.

	hugepages=	[HW,X86-32,IA-64] HugeTLB pages to allocate at boot.
	hugepagesz=	[HW,IA-64,PPC,X86-64] The size of the HugeTLB pages.
			On x86-64 and powerpc, this option can be specified
			multiple times interleaved with hugepages= to reserve
			huge pages of different sizes. Valid pages sizes on
			x86-64 are 2M (when the CPU supports "pse") and 1G
			(when the CPU supports the "pdpe1gb" cpuinfo flag)
			Note that 1GB pages can only be allocated at boot time
			using hugepages= and not freed afterwards.

	hvc_iucv=	[S390] Number of z/VM IUCV hypervisor console (HVC)
			       terminal devices. Valid values: 0..8
	hvc_iucv_allow=	[S390] Comma-separated list of z/VM user IDs.
			       If specified, z/VM IUCV HVC accepts connections
			       from listed z/VM user IDs only.

	i2c_bus=	[HW] Override the default board specific I2C bus speed
			     or register an additional I2C bus that is not
			     registered from board initialization code.
			     Format:
			     <bus_id>,<clkrate>

	i8042.debug	[HW] Toggle i8042 debug mode
	i8042.direct	[HW] Put keyboard port into non-translated mode
	i8042.dumbkbd	[HW] Pretend that controller can only read data from
			     keyboard and cannot control its state
			     (Don"t attempt to blink the leds)
	i8042.noaux	[HW] Don"t check for auxiliary (== mouse) port
	i8042.nokbd	[HW] Don"t check/create keyboard port
	i8042.noloop	[HW] Disable the AUX Loopback command while probing
			     for the AUX port
	i8042.nomux	[HW] Don"t check presence of an active multiplexing
			     controller
	i8042.nopnp	[HW] Don"t use ACPIPnP / PnPBIOS to discover KBD/AUX
			     controllers
	i8042.panicblink=
			[HW] Frequency with which keyboard LEDs should blink
			     when kernel panics (default is 0.5 sec)
	i8042.reset	[HW] Reset the controller during init and cleanup
	i8042.unlock	[HW] Unlock (ignore) the keylock

	i810=		[HW,DRM]

	i8k.ignore_dmi	[HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
			indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
			hardware.
	i8k.force	[HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
			does not match list of supported models.
	i8k.power_status
			[HW] Report power status in /proc/i8k
			(disabled by default)
	i8k.restricted	[HW] Allow controlling fans only if SYS_ADMIN
			capability is set.

	ibmmcascsi=	[HW,MCA,SCSI] IBM MicroChannel SCSI adapter
			See Documentation/mca.txt.

	icn=		[HW,ISDN]
			Format: <io>[,<membase>[,<icn_id>[,<icn_id2>]]]

	ide-core.nodma=	[HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Format: =0.0 to prevent dma on hda, =0.1 hdb =1.0 hdc
			.vlb_clock .pci_clock .noflush .nohpa .noprobe .nowerr
			.cdrom .chs .ignore_cable are additional options
			See Documentation/ide/ide.txt.

	ide-pci-generic.all-generic-ide [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Claim all unknown PCI IDE storage controllers.

	idle=		[X86]
			Format: idle=poll, idle=mwait, idle=halt, idle=nomwait
			Poll forces a polling idle loop that can slightly
			improve the performance of waking up a idle CPU, but
			will use a lot of power and make the system run hot.
			Not recommended.
			idle=mwait: On systems which support MONITOR/MWAIT but
			the kernel chose to not use it because it doesn"t save
			as much power as a normal idle loop, use the
			MONITOR/MWAIT idle loop anyways. Performance should be
			the same as idle=poll.
			idle=halt: Halt is forced to be used for CPU idle.
			In such case C2/C3 won"t be used again.
			idle=nomwait: Disable mwait for CPU C-states

	ignore_loglevel	[KNL]
			Ignore loglevel setting - this will print /all/
			kernel messages to the console. Useful for debugging.

	ihash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for inode cache.

	ima_audit=	[IMA]
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			0 -- integrity auditing messages. (Default)
			1 -- enable informational integrity auditing messages.

	ima_hash=	[IMA]
			Format: { "sha1" | "md5" }
			default: "sha1"

	ima_tcb		[IMA]
			Load a policy which meets the needs of the Trusted
			Computing Base.  This means IMA will measure all
			programs exec"d, files mmap"d for exec, and all files
			opened for read by uid=0.

	in2000=		[HW,SCSI]
			See header of drivers/scsi/in2000.c.

	init=		[KNL]
			Format: <full_path>
			Run specified binary instead of /sbin/init as init
			process.

	initcall_debug	[KNL] Trace initcalls as they are executed.  Useful
			for working out where the kernel is dying during
			startup.

	initcall_blacklist=  [KNL] Do not execute a comma-separated list of
			initcall functions.  Useful for debugging built-in
			modules and initcalls.

	initrd=		[BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk

	inport.irq=	[HW] Inport (ATI XL and Microsoft) busmouse driver
			Format: <irq>

	int_pln_enable  [x86] Enable power limit notification interrupt

	intel_iommu=	[DMAR] Intel IOMMU driver (DMAR) option
		on
			Enable intel iommu driver.
		off
			Disable intel iommu driver.
		igfx_off [Default Off]
			By default, gfx is mapped as normal device. If a gfx
			device has a dedicated DMAR unit, the DMAR unit is
			bypassed by not enabling DMAR with this option. In
			this case, gfx device will use physical address for
			DMA.
		pt64 [Default Off]
			Enable 64 bit pass through mode if the kernel has the
			capability.  Also disables forcedac, unless that option
			follows this option.
		forcedac [x86_64]
			With this option iommu will not optimize to look
			for io virtual address below 32 bit forcing dual
			address cycle on pci bus for cards supporting greater
			than 32 bit addressing. The default is to look
			for translation below 32 bit and if not available
			then look in the higher range.  Note that pt64 disables
			this option, so this must follow that option to be
			effective.
		strict [Default Off]
			With this option on every unmap_single operation will
			result in a hardware IOTLB flush operation as opposed
			to batching them for performance.
		sp_off [Default Off]
			By default, super page will be supported if Intel IOMMU
			has the capability. With this option, super page will
			not be supported.

	intel_idle.max_cstate=	[KNL,HW,ACPI,X86]
			0	disables intel_idle and fall back on acpi_idle.
			1 to 6	specify maximum depth of C-state.

	intremap=	[X86-64, Intel-IOMMU]
			on	enable Interrupt Remapping (default)
			off	disable Interrupt Remapping
			nosid	disable Source ID checking
			no_x2apic_optout
				BIOS x2APIC opt-out request will be ignored

	inttest=	[IA64]

	iomem=		Disable strict checking of access to MMIO memory
		strict	regions from userspace.
		relaxed

	iommu=		[x86]
		off
		force
		noforce
		biomerge
		panic
		nopanic
		merge
		nomerge
		forcesac
		soft
		pt	[x86, IA64]

	io7=		[HW] IO7 for Marvel based alpha systems
			See comment before marvel_specify_io7 in
			arch/alpha/kernel/core_marvel.c.

	io_delay=	[X86] I/O delay method
		0x80
			Standard port 0x80 based delay
		0xed
			Alternate port 0xed based delay (needed on some systems)
		udelay
			Simple two microseconds delay
		none
			No delay

	ip=		[IP_PNP]
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	ip2=		[HW] Set IO/IRQ pairs for up to 4 IntelliPort boards
			See comment before ip2_setup() in
			drivers/char/ip2/ip2base.c.

	ips=		[HW,SCSI] Adaptec / IBM ServeRAID controller
			See header of drivers/scsi/ips.c.

	irqfixup	[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	irqpoll		[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Also check all handlers each timer
			interrupt. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	isapnp=		[ISAPNP]
			Format: <RDP>,<reset>,<pci_scan>,<verbosity>

	isolcpus=	[KNL,SMP] Isolate CPUs from the general scheduler.
			Format:
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>
			or
			<cpu number>-<cpu number>
			(must be a positive range in ascending order)
			or a mixture
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>-<cpu number>

			This option can be used to specify one or more CPUs
			to isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling
			algorithms. You can move a process onto or off an
			"isolated" CPU via the CPU affinity syscalls or cpuset.
			<cpu number> begins at 0 and the maximum value is
			"number of CPUs in system - 1".

			This option is the preferred way to isolate CPUs. The
			alternative -- manually setting the CPU mask of all
			tasks in the system -- can cause problems and
			suboptimal load balancer performance.

	iucv=		[HW,NET]

	js=		[HW,JOY] Analog joystick
			See Documentation/input/joystick.txt.

	keepinitrd	[HW,ARM]

	kernelcore=nn[KMG]	[KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC] This parameter
			specifies the amount of memory usable by the kernel
			for non-movable allocations.  The requested amount is
			spread evenly throughout all nodes in the system. The
			remaining memory in each node is used for Movable
			pages. In the event, a node is too small to have both
			kernelcore and Movable pages, kernelcore pages will
			take priority and other nodes will have a larger number
			of Movable pages.  The Movable zone is used for the
			allocation of pages that may be reclaimed or moved
			by the page migration subsystem.  This means that
			HugeTLB pages may not be allocated from this zone.
			Note that allocations like PTEs-from-HighMem still
			use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal
			zone if it does not.

	kgdboc=		[HW] kgdb over consoles.
			Requires a tty driver that supports console polling.
			(only serial supported for now)
			Format: <serial_device>[,baud]

	kmac=		[MIPS] korina ethernet MAC address.
			Configure the RouterBoard 532 series on-chip
			Ethernet adapter MAC address.

	kmemleak=	[KNL] Boot-time kmemleak enable/disable
			Valid arguments: on, off
			Default: on

	kstack=N	[X86] Print N words from the kernel stack
			in oops dumps.

	kvm.ignore_msrs=[KVM] Ignore guest accesses to unhandled MSRs.
			Default is 0 (don"t ignore, but inject #GP)

	kvm.oos_shadow=	[KVM] Disable out-of-sync shadow paging.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-amd.nested=	[KVM,AMD] Allow nested virtualization in KVM/SVM.
			Default is 0 (off)

	kvm-amd.npt=	[KVM,AMD] Disable nested paging (virtualized MMU)
			for all guests.
			Default is 1 (enabled) if in 64bit or 32bit-PAE mode

	kvm-intel.bypass_guest_pf=
			[KVM,Intel] Disables bypassing of guest page faults
			on Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.ept=	[KVM,Intel] Disable extended page tables
			(virtualized MMU) support on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.emulate_invalid_guest_state=
			[KVM,Intel] Enable emulation of invalid guest states
			Default is 0 (disabled)

	kvm-intel.flexpriority=
			[KVM,Intel] Disable FlexPriority feature (TPR shadow).
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.unrestricted_guest=
			[KVM,Intel] Disable unrestricted guest feature
			(virtualized real and unpaged mode) on capable
			Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.vpid=	[KVM,Intel] Disable Virtual Processor Identification
			feature (tagged TLBs) on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	l2cr=		[PPC]

	l3cr=		[PPC]

	lapic		[X86-32,APIC] Enable the local APIC even if BIOS
			disabled it.

	lapic_timer_c2_ok	[X86,APIC] trust the local apic timer
			in C2 power state.

	libata.dma=	[LIBATA] DMA control
			libata.dma=0	  Disable all PATA and SATA DMA
			libata.dma=1	  PATA and SATA Disk DMA only
			libata.dma=2	  ATAPI (CDROM) DMA only
			libata.dma=4	  Compact Flash DMA only 
			Combinations also work, so libata.dma=3 enables DMA
			for disks and CDROMs, but not CFs.
	
	libata.ignore_hpa=	[LIBATA] Ignore HPA limit
			libata.ignore_hpa=0	  keep BIOS limits (default)
			libata.ignore_hpa=1	  ignore limits, using full disk

	libata.noacpi	[LIBATA] Disables use of ACPI in libata suspend/resume
			when set.
			Format: <int>

	libata.force=	[LIBATA] Force configurations.  The format is comma
			separated list of "[ID:]VAL" where ID is
			PORT[:DEVICE].  PORT and DEVICE are decimal numbers
			matching port, link or device.  Basically, it matches
			the ATA ID string printed on console by libata.  If
			the whole ID part is omitted, the last PORT and DEVICE
			values are used.  If ID hasn"t been specified yet, the
			configuration applies to all ports, links and devices.

			If only DEVICE is omitted, the parameter applies to
			the port and all links and devices behind it.  DEVICE
			number of 0 either selects the first device or the
			first fan-out link behind PMP device.  It does not
			select the host link.  DEVICE number of 15 selects the
			host link and device attached to it.

			The VAL specifies the configuration to force.  As long
			as there"s no ambiguity shortcut notation is allowed.
			For example, both 1.5 and 1.5G would work for 1.5Gbps.
			The following configurations can be forced.

			* Cable type: 40c, 80c, short40c, unk, ign or sata.
			  Any ID with matching PORT is used.

			* SATA link speed limit: 1.5Gbps or 3.0Gbps.

			* Transfer mode: pio[0-7], mwdma[0-4] and udma[0-7].
			  udma[/][16,25,33,44,66,100,133] notation is also
			  allowed.

			* [no]ncq: Turn on or off NCQ.

			* nohrst, nosrst, norst: suppress hard, soft
                          and both resets.

			* rstonce: only attempt one reset during
			  hot-unplug link recovery

			If there are multiple matching configurations changing
			the same attribute, the last one is used.

	lmb=debug	[KNL] Enable lmb debug messages.

	load_ramdisk=	[RAM] List of ramdisks to load from floppy
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	lockd.nlm_grace_period=P  [NFS] Assign grace period.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_tcpport=N	[NFS] Assign TCP port.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_timeout=T	[NFS] Assign timeout value.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_udpport=M	[NFS] Assign UDP port.
			Format: <integer>

	logibm.irq=	[HW,MOUSE] Logitech Bus Mouse Driver
			Format: <irq>

	loglevel=	All Kernel Messages with a loglevel smaller than the
			console loglevel will be printed to the console. It can
			also be changed with klogd or other programs. The
			loglevels are defined as follows:

			0 (KERN_EMERG)		system is unusable
			1 (KERN_ALERT)		action must be taken immediately
			2 (KERN_CRIT)		critical conditions
			3 (KERN_ERR)		error conditions
			4 (KERN_WARNING)	warning conditions
			5 (KERN_NOTICE)		normal but significant condition
			6 (KERN_INFO)		informational
			7 (KERN_DEBUG)		debug-level messages

	log_buf_len=n	Sets the size of the printk ring buffer, in bytes.
			Format: { n | nk | nM }
			n must be a power of two.  The default size
			is set in the kernel config file.

	logo.nologo	[FB] Disables display of the built-in Linux logo.
			This may be used to provide more screen space for
			kernel log messages and is useful when debugging
			kernel boot problems.

	lp=0		[LP]	Specify parallel ports to use, e.g,
	lp=port[,port...]	lp=none,parport0 (lp0 not configured, lp1 uses
	lp=reset		first parallel port). "lp=0" disables the
	lp=auto			printer driver. "lp=reset" (which can be
				specified in addition to the ports) causes
				attached printers to be reset. Using
				lp=port1,port2,... specifies the parallel ports
				to associate lp devices with, starting with
				lp0. A port specification may be "none" to skip
				that lp device, or a parport name such as
				"parport0". Specifying "lp=auto" instead of a
				port specification list means that device IDs
				from each port should be examined, to see if
				an IEEE 1284-compliant printer is attached; if
				so, the driver will manage that printer.
				See also header of drivers/char/lp.c.

	lpj=n		[KNL]
			Sets loops_per_jiffy to given constant, thus avoiding
			time-consuming boot-time autodetection (up to 250 ms per
			CPU). 0 enables autodetection (default). To determine
			the correct value for your kernel, boot with normal
			autodetection and see what value is printed. Note that
			on SMP systems the preset will be applied to all CPUs,
			which is likely to cause problems if your CPUs need
			significantly divergent settings. An incorrect value
			will cause delays in the kernel to be wrong, leading to
			unpredictable I/O errors and other breakage. Although
			unlikely, in the extreme case this might

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